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iOLAR/1013- 79/03 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



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J. D. EVANS 

HOUSE B 

MARCH 1979 



U.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

J. D. EVANS, INC. 
HOUSE B 

MARCH 1979 



I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

J. D. Evans, Inc., House B is one of two instrumented single-family residences 
in Columbia, Maryland. The home has approximately 2250 square feet of condi- 
tioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating 
domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate 
collectors with a gross area of 374 square feet. The array faces south at an 
angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal. Water is the transfer medium that 
delivers solar energy from the collector array to storage and to the space 
heating and hot water loads. Solar energy is stored in the basement in a 
1000-gallon steel storage tank. Incoming city water is preheated in a liquid- 
to-liquid heat exchanger located in the storage tank and then flows into a 
conventional 40-gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy 
the space heating load, a heat exchanger within a heat pump and an electrical 
heating element in the air-distribution duct provides auxiliary energy for 
space heating. Similarly, an electrical heating element in the DHW tank 
provides auxiliary energy for water heating. The system, shown schematically 
in Figure 1, has three modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector-to-Storage : This mode activates when the temperature 
difference between the storage tank and the collector outlet is higher than 
15°F. Water circulates from the storage tank through the collector until a 
temperature difference of less than 5°F is reached. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when thermal energy 
for space heating is requested by the room thermostat. Solar-heated water 
from storage circulates through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the space 
heating air duct. If solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space 
heating load, the heat pump and/or the auxiliary electrical heating element 
will be activated. The electrical strip heater can also be manually operated 
without solar heating and heat pump operation. 

Mode 3 - DHW Preheating : This mode is activated by drawing hot water from the 
system. Cold supply water is preheated in a 1 iquid-to-1 iquid heat exchanger 
located in the solar energy storage tank before flowing to the DHW tank. If 
the required DHW tank temperature of 140°F is not maintained by solar preheat- 
ing, auxiliary energy is provided by the electrical heating element in the DHW 
tank. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied in March and the solar energy system operated continuously 
during the month. Solar energy satisfied 69 percent of the space heating 



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requirements. Solar fraction of the DHW load and DHW auxiliary electrical 
energy were not determined because of problems with the DHW auxiliary energy 
sensor. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 17.6 
million Btu for a daily average of 1519 Btu per square foot. This was above 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
March of 1381 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 45 
degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during March was 
46°F as compared with the long-term average for March of 43°F. The number of 
heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 607, as 
compared with the long-term average of 688. The number of cooling degree-days 
was 8, as compared with the average of zero. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During March the solar energy system performed approximately the same 
as expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified f-chart 
analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar energy 
used by the system was estimated by assuming that all energy collected would be 
applied to the load. Actual solar energy used was 3.7 million Btu. The esti- 
mated system solar fraction was 81 percent. The actual solar fraction could 
not be determined because of a power-sensor problem with the DHW electrical 
heater. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of March was 17.6 million Btu. During the period the collector loop was 
operating the total insolation amounted to 14.6 million Btu. The total collected 
solar energy for the month of March was 4.5 million Btu, resulting in a collector 
array efficiency of 26 percent, based on total incident insolation. Solar 
energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 4.5 million Btu. Opera- 
ting energy required by the collector loop was 0.15 million Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 4.5 million Btu. There were 
3.7 million Btu delivered from storage to the DHW and space heating subsystems. 
Energy loss from storage was 0.82 million Btu. This loss represented 18 percent 
of the energy delivered to storage. The storage efficiency was 82 percent: This 
is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the energy removed from storage and the 
change in stored energy, to the energy delivered to storage. The average storage 
temperature for the month was 112°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed 0.87 million Btu of solar energy and an 
undetermined amount of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a hot water load 
of 1.6 million Btu. The DHW subsystem contributed an electrical energy savings 
of 0.87 million Btu. A daily average of 82 gallons of DHW was consumed at an 
average temperature of 117°F delivered from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed 2.8 million Btu of 
solar energy and 0.81 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a 



space heating load of 4.1 million Btu. The heat pump supplied 0.75 million Btu 
and the auxiliary electrical strip heater supplied 0.49 million Btu of the load 
requirements. The solar fraction of the space heating load was 69 percent. 
The space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.42 million Btu of operating 
energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 1.4 million Btu. The 
average ambient temperature inside the house was 68°F. 

OBSERVATIONS 

The electrical energy savings for the space heating subsystem were determined 
based on conventional heating using a heat' pump. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a net electrical energy savings of 2.1 
million Btu. The DHW subsystem provided an electrical energy savings of 0.87 
million Btu, while the space heating subsystem contributed an electrical 
energy savings of 1.4 million Btu. 

III. ACTION STATUS 

Boeing is expected to investigate the power sensor problem with the DHW electrical 
heater. 







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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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